Diabetes mellitus is a serious illness for life. However, if you can control it well, you will continue to live normally.
High blood glucose levels determine this disease as chronic. In such a disease or the body does not produce insulin or the body does not use it effectively.
Why is diabetes treatment so important to human life?
The treatment of diabetes mellitus is necessary in order for a person to lead a normal and fulfilling lifestyle, to feel good and working and to prevent the development of complications. Over time, poorly controlled diabetes damages the eyes, the kidneys, the heart, leads to decreased irrigation and sensitivity of the feet. It has been shown that maintaining blood sugar in values close to normal reduces significantly the onset and progression of these complications.
It is important to avoid complications!
Sometimes, blood sugar may fall to very low levels, a state we define as hypoglycemia or "hypo". The reasons for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) may be an injection of a higher insulin dose; extraordinary physical activity; missed or delayed intake of food; alcohol consumption on fasting or without adequate intake of carbohydrates.
Every patient has his or her specific symptoms of hypoglycemia, which he or she needs to know well in order to take the necessary measures in time. In a "hypo" one can feel: sweating, trembling, hunger, palpitations, fainting, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, blurred or double vision.
Did you know there are three main types of diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes may occur at any age but mainly develops during childhood and adolescence. It is an undesirable autoimmune disease that develops when the immune system destroys pancreatic cells producing insulin. Insulin replacement is a major treatment for type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes requires careful nutrition balance, exercise and insulin use.
Type 2 diabetes occurs if the body becomes resistant to the insulin-producing the pancreas. Often, blood glucose levels can be maintained at normal levels by changing lifestyle. It is possible that insulin is switched on with the progression of the disease.
What Can Be The Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes?
Usually, various factors may be the cause of this disease - they are called predisposing factors that contribute to such a disease.
The first factor is the hereditary burden:
- If one parent is a diabetic, the probability of the child to inherit the disease is 30%.
- If both parents are diabetics, the likelihood that the child is a diabetic is 8 out of 10, just as with identical twins!
Why Is Obesity A Factor For Diabetes?
Obesity is a secondary factor but plays a role in the onset of diabetes. This can happen if: there is no physical activity in a staying life; if large amounts of fat-rich food are taken; use large amounts of alcohol; there is not enough of the plant fiber in the food.
The disease can occur during pregnancy in women and subsequently develop.
Gestational diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels that appear for the first time during pregnancy, which usually disappears after the birth of the baby. Gestational diabetes, like type 2 diabetes, may be related to lifestyle factors and is treated with a combination of lifestyle modifications and medications.
90% of people over 65 years of age suffer from type 2 diabetes.
The National Health Survey (NHS) 2014-2015 shows that 1 out of 6 people over the age of 65 report having diabetes - just over 574,000 people. The number of people with diabetes increases with age, with the highest incidence (19.4%) being reported in people over 85 years of age. Men with diabetes are about 10% more than women, which accounts for 55% of the cases in people aged 65 and over. The most common type of diabetes reported by people aged 65 and over is type 2 diabetes - accounting for more than 9 out of 10 cases or 90% for elderly people.
Diabetes diagnosis, reported only for people over the age of 65, has tripled over the past two decades - from 5.5% in 1989-1990 to 17.4% in 2014-15. This is due to a number of factors including increasing the spread of risk factors: raising public awareness, better detection techniques, improving survival by management techniques and aging populations, and is about 5 times higher than for all ages.
Causes of Diabetes
It is believed that the cause of type 1 diabetes is a genetic predisposition and the impact of the environment.
As a rule, people aged 45-48 years old are more likely to suffer from Type II OCD. The highest percentage of this diagnosis is seen among overweight people. In those with moderate obesity, the incidence of ZHD increased 4-fold and in those with marked obesity - over 30 times.
Type II xD is determined when the cells do not respond to the hormone insulin in a corresponding manner.
The conditions contributing to this amendment are well known. Among them is the overweight.
The others are:
- sexual maturity. Resistance to insulin increases by 30% during sexual maturation due to the influence of the growth hormone;
- female. Women are thought to be more susceptible to developing intolerance than men;
- a race. Insensitivity to insulin is 30% higher in African Americans than in other races;
- a genetic factor.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 have common symptoms
Separation of a significant amount of urine. A measure is taken over 2 liters per day;
Thirsty and dry, felt in the oral cavity. Practically constant and clear need for liquids;
Permanent hunger, even after a good meal. Weight loss is not noticeable at first, as there are overweight in the general population;
Unexplained fluctuations in weight: to increase and decrease;
Fatigue, rapid exhaustion, weakness;
Headache, blurred vision;
Skin infections with bacterial and fungal infections. Itching. The sweat of the skin. Obtain stronger pigmented areas, especially on the neck;
Unexplained looseness, poor self-esteem;
Febrile skin diseases, boils, hard healing ulcers;
Severe irritation of the genital area;
Numbness of the hands or feet;
Progressive worsening vision.
Diabetes can lead to a number of acute and chronic diseases, including heart attack and stroke, kidney damage, loss of vision, nerve damage and delayed wound healing, which can also lead to loss of the lower limb. Early and intense management of blood sugar levels may delay the onset or delay the development of these complications.
Why is medicine for the elderly needed?
About a quarter of people with type 2 diabetes are over 60 years old. Elderly patients also have more frequent arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, prominent cardiovascular disease and problems such as cognitive impairment, depression, urinary incontinence, risk of falling (diabetic neuropathy, impaired vision) and persistent pain.
Therefore, in the elderly, the benefits of intensive glucose control should be judged against their associated risks, such as the effects of medicines on the kidneys and the risk of interactions with other drugs used to manage a variety of diseases.
Types of hospitalization for type 2 diabetes increase with age, with the majority of hospitalizations being recorded in people aged 55 and over. The level of hospitalization is highest for people over 75 years of age and higher for men than for women. For one year, approximately 10% of hospital treatments are for diabetic patients.